In my experience, and that's one of the things that bug me with FIFA, players do feel more different on PES than FIFA despite the fact that there's fewer attributes. Mainly because the impact of attributes on player is better weighed on PES, but also because of stuff that doesn't exist in FIFA like skillcards, the different weak foot system, the form attribute, etc.
Based on my observation, as of today, Explosive power is rated as acceleration but does have an impact on agility, just like other things do. Agility, speed of turns seems to be calculated differently depending on situation, height, weight, body control.
I, for example, witnessed body control allowing fluid, fast turns while off balance on tall players with average EP. Body control does have a lot to do with how fluid a player is in his movement, so that's agility but also overall ability to keep balance and "body coordination", in a sense. A player with high acceleration and shit agi should, in most case, be replicated with high EP and low BC, I think. But I'm still not 100% sure about this.
A good example is Bale, 89 EP and 65 BC in his defaut set. It confirms my idea (well, assuming Konami rated him fairly close to what we have here, with the same ideas), but I'd need to look at other sets.
Defensive prowess is a stat I'm studying at the moment, and yeah, it does seem like it's response in defensive situations (so it does have similar effects than FIFA's interceptions), while ball winning is raw DEF, tackling and dispossessing ability.
FIFA's marking is defensive positioning, nothing more, but no one clearly knows how it actually translates in game. In fact, while FIFA stats are more self-explanatory, some of them are even more shady than Konami's regarding how they actually work in game. So yeah, I'd say both games have their flaws in this aspect, but in the end, PES has better individuality in my opinion, even in the current gen games.
Volleys used to be replicated in shot technique. In current games, there are, as far as I know, 4 things that affect it.
4. Finishing stat
1. Position and balance while shooting
2. 1st time shot card
3. Acrobatic finish card (only if the shot is of such type; players who don't have the card are less likely to pull them off, less likely to correctly execute them, and won't pull off higher level acrobatic shots)
And I suppose chip shot control if you're attempting a first touch chip.
I could also argue body control has its importance since a player with high body control is more likely to not be off balance while attempting the volley, depending on the situation of course, which should result in a more clean shot.
Regarding your last question, how quickly a player can move the ball away from a tackle, that just sounds like DA? It's Dribbling in newer games.
Everyone knew it was impossible. Then came along a fool who didn't know it, and he did it.